This module defines a standard interface to break Uniform Resource Locator (URL) strings up in components (addressing scheme, network location, path etc.)


Returns a tuple (scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment) derived from url.

This corresponds to the general structure of a URL: scheme://netloc/path?query#fragment. Each tuple item is a string, possibly empty. The components are not broken up in smaller parts (for example, the network location is a single string), and % escapes are not expanded. The delimiters as shown above are not part of the result, except for a leading slash in the path component, which is retained if present. For example:

import urlparse o = urlparse(‘http://www.cwi.nl:80/%7Eguido/Python.html‘)

# result is (‘http’, ‘www.cwi.nl:80’, ‘/%7Eguido/Python.html’, ‘’, ‘’)

Following the syntax specifications in RFC 1808, urlparse recognizes a netloc only if it is properly introduced by ‘//’. Otherwise the input is presumed to be a relative URL and thus to start with a path component.


Given netloc as parsed by parse(), breaks it in its component returning a tuple (user, password, host, port). Each component of the returned tuple is a string.


Return the urlencoded version of s.

Urlencoding transforms unsafe bytes to their %XX representation where XX is the hex value of the byte.

Safe bytes are:

  • lowercase letters from “a” to “z” (bytes from 0x61 to 0x7a)
  • uppercase letters from “A” to “Z” (bytes from 0x41 to 0x5a)
  • numbers from “0” to “9” (bytes from 0x30 to 0x39)
  • the following symbols: $-_.+!*’()

Like quote(), but also escapes + symbol.


If s is urlencoded, returns s with every + substituted with a space and every %xx substituted with the corresponding character.


Parses a query string qs and returns a dictionary containing the association between keys and values of qs. Values are urldecoded by unquote().


Tranforms data dictionary in a urlencoded query string and returns the query string. Each pair (key, value) is encoded by quote_via function. By default, quote_plus() is used to quote the values. An alternate function that can be passed as quote_via is quote().